Daily Horoscope in Urdu Leo Today. Description of Planets. His ideal form of pleasure involves a harem and sumptuous food at Astrology remedies Dosh in a horoscope, Evil in your natal chart, Bad planetary influences on you you must have heard all this, and probably be even scared of the dangerous connotations that theseMetro Sports Business Opinion Politics Lifestyle Marijuana Arts Magazine Cars Real Estate Events. Get your free daily horoscope and zodiac readings. Find out what's in store for your astrological sign. July 23August Entrances to stations were designed in Art Nouveau style by Hector Guimard.
Eighty-six of his entrances are still in existence. Construction was so intense that by , despite a few changes from schedule, most lines had been completed.
The shield method of construction was rejected in favor of the cut-and-cover method in order to speed up work. Line 1 and Line 4 were conceived as central east-west and north-south lines. A section opened in between Invalides and the Boulevard Saint-Germain before the plan was abandoned. It was responsible for building three proposed lines:. Because of the high construction costs, the construction of line C was postponed.
This was necessary because of steep gradients on NS lines. NS distinguished itself from its competitor with the high-quality decoration of its stations, the trains' extreme comfort and pretty lighting. Nord-Sud did not become profitable and bankruptcy became unavoidable. Paris planned three new lines and extensions of most lines to the inner suburbs, despite the reluctance of Parisians.
It extended north in encompassing the already-built portion between Invalides and Duroc, initially planned as part of the inner circular. Lines 10, 11 and 14 were thus the three new lines envisaged under this plan. Most lines would be extended to the inner suburbs. The first to leave the city proper was Line 9, extended in to Boulogne-Billancourt ; more followed in the s. World War II forced authorities to abandon projects such as the extension of Line 4 and Line 12 to the northern suburbs. Services were limited and many stations closed.
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As a result, Lines 2 and 6 now form a circle. Most stations were too shallow to be used as bomb shelters. The French Resistance used the tunnels to conduct swift assaults throughout Paris. It took a long time to recover after liberation in Many stations had not reopened by the s and some closed for good. The network grew saturated during the s.
Outdated technology limited the number of trains, which led the RATP to stop extending lines and concentrate on modernisation. Thanks to newer trains and better signalling, trains ran more frequently. The population boomed from to Car ownership became more common and suburbs grew further from the centre of Paris. The main railway stations, termini of the suburban rail lines, were overcrowded during rush hour. The short distance between metro stations slowed the network and made it unprofitable to build extensions. The RER plan initially included one east-west line and two north-south lines.
Because of the enormous cost of these two lines, the third planned line was abandoned and the authorities decided that later developments of the RER network would be more cheaply developed by SNCF , alongside its continued management of other suburban lines. In , SNCF developed line C by joining the suburban lines of Gare d'Austerlitz and Gare d'Orsay , the latter being converted into a museum dedicated to impressionist paintings. The same project of the s also decided to merge lines 13 and 14 to create a quick connection between Saint-Lazare and Montparnasse as a new north-south line.
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Distances between stations on the lengthened line 13 differ from that on other lines in order to make it more "express" and hence to extend it farther in the suburbs. In October , Line 14 was inaugurated. It was the first with platform screen doors to prevent suicides and accidents. It was conceived with extensions to the suburbs in mind, similar to the extensions of the line 13 built during the s.
As a result, most of the stations are at least a kilometre apart.
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The line runs between Saint-Lazare and Olympiades. Lines 7 and 13 are the only two on the network to be split in branches.
The RATP would like to get rid of those saturated branches in order to improve the network's efficiency. A project existed to attribute to line 14 one branch of each line, and to extend them further into the suburbs. This project was abandoned. In work started in and completed in November , Line 1 was converted to driverless operation. The line was operated with a combination of driver-operated trains and driver-less trains until the delivery of the last of its driver-less MP 05 trains in February The same conversion is on-going for Line 4, with an expected completion date in Several extensions to the suburbs opened in the last years.
Line 8 was extended to Pointe du Lac in , line 12 was extended to Aubervilliers in and line 4 was extended to Mairie de Montrouge in The slow average speed effectively prohibits service to the greater Paris area. Above-ground sections consist of viaducts within Paris on Lines 1, 2, 5 and 6 and the suburban ends of Lines 1, 5, 8, and The tunnels follow the twisting lie of the streets.
During construction in a minimum radius of curvature of just 75 metres was imposed, but even this low standard was not adhered to at Bastille and Notre-Dame-de-Lorette. The tracks are standard gauge 1. Electric power is supplied by a third rail which carries volts DC. The width of the carriages, 2. The City of Paris deliberately chose the narrow size of the Metro tunnels to prevent the running of main-line trains; the city of Paris and the French state had historically poor relations.
The number of cars in each train varies line by line from three to six; most have five, and eight is possible on Line Two lines, 7 and 13, have branches at the end, and trains serve every station on each line except when they are closed for renovations. On some lines additional trains start from an intermediate station.
Fares are sold at kiosks and at automated machines in the station foyer. Entrance to platforms is by automated gate, opened by smart cards and simple tickets. Gates return tickets for passengers to retain for the duration of the journey. There is normally no system to collect or check tickets at the end of the journey, and tickets can be inspected at any point.
The exit from all stations is clearly marked as to the point beyond which possession of a ticket is no longer required. It is valid for a multi-transfer journey within one and a half hours from the first validation. It allows unlimited transfers between the same mode of transport i. When transferring between the Metro and the RER, it is necessary to retain the ticket. The RER requires a valid ticket for entry and exit, even for a transfer. Fares include:. Access provided would be free, with a premium paid alternative offer proposed for a faster internet connection. Trains stop at all stations.
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An average interstation trip takes 58 seconds. The track is standard gauge but the loading gauge is smaller than the mainline SNCF network. Power is from a lateral third rail , V DC , except on the rubber-tyred lines where the current is from guide bars. The loading gauge is small compared to those of newer metro systems but comparable to that of early European metros , with capacities of between about and passengers per train on Lines 1— Many other metro systems such as those of New York and London adopted expanded tunnel dimensions for their newer lines or used tunnels of multiple sizes almost from the outset, in the case of Boston , at the cost of operating incompatible fleets of rolling stock.
Paris built all lines to the same dimensions as its original lines. Before the introduction of rubber-tire lines in the s, this common shared size theoretically allowed any Metro rolling stock to operate on any line, but in practice each line was assigned a regular roster of trains. A feature is the use of rubber-tired trains on five lines: this technique was developed by RATP and entered service in Lines 1, 4, 6, 11 and 14 have special adaptations to accommodate rubber-tyred trains. Trains are composed of 3 to 6 cars depending on the line, the most common being 5 cars Line 14 may have 8 cars in the future , but all trains on the same line have the same number of cars.
The Metro is designed to provide local, point-to-point service in Paris proper and service into the city from some close suburbs.
The low speed virtually precludes feasible service to farther suburbs, which are serviced by the RER. In most cases both tracks are laid in a single tunnel. Almost all lines follow roads, having been built by the cut-and-cover method near the surface the earliest by hand. Many lines have very sharp curves. The specifications established in required a very low minimum curve radius by railway standards, but even this was often not fully respected, for example near Bastille and Notre Dame de Lorette. Parts of the network are built at depth, in particular a section of Line 12 under Montmartre , the sections under the Seine , and all of Line The different versions of each kind are specified by year of design.
MF MP MP 89 CA. Station length was originally 75 m.